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Miscellaneous publications 74

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Erikoisjulkaisu ej74 

Mine closure handbook

Author(s): Heikkinen, P. M. (ed.); Noras, P. (ed.); Salminen, R. (ed.); Mroueh, U.-M.; Vahanne, P.; Wahlström, M.; Kaartinen, T.; Juvankoski, M.; Vestola, E.; Mäkelä, E.; Leino, T.; Kosonen, M.; Hatakka, T.; Jarva, J.; Kauppila, T.; Leveinen, J.; Lintinen, P.; Suomela, P.; Pöyry, H.; Vallius, P.; Nevalainen, J.; Tolla, P. & Komppa, V.
Year: 2008
Pages: 169 p. 
ISBN: 978-952-217-042-2
(file size 9 MB)


The Mine Closure Handbook has been compiled within the Tekes-financed project “Environmental techniques for the extractive industries” and it has been directed to mining companies, authorities and consultants. The planning and implementation of mine closure are constrained by legislative requirements that define criteria and objectives for closure, as well as dictate responsibilities and sanctions. In addition to legislation, principles of sustainability, best practice and environmental management systems provide guidelines for closure. The wide variety of raw materials mined and the differences in operations are reflected in mine closure planning and implementation. The selection of methods employed is dependent on e.g the nature of the deposit and the production process, the type and properties of the by-products and the environmental conditions at the site. The selection of methods must be based on site-specific considerations.

The introductory section of the Handbook describes the special features of mining projects, e.g the life-cycle and environmental impacts of mines. The structure and importance of mining industry in Finland are also reviewed. The next section discusses the general principles and aims of mine closure, while the subsequent section on legislation reviews current legislatory requirements for mine closure and presents case law and permit decisions. The following sections describe procedures of environmental impact assessment and risk assessment related to mine closure and present examples of studies that can be used to support planning. After the planning section, the Handbook focuses on the implementation of mine closure and presents technical solutions and risk control measures of relevance to closure. The final sections deal with aspects of after closure monitoring and cost accounting.

The appendices of the Handbook provide in-depth views of the most important topics raised in the main text.

Key words: mines, mine closure, planning, legislation, environmental geology, environmental effects,
risk assessment, remediation, manuals, Finland


Päivi M. Heikkinen
Geological Survey of Finland
P.O. BOX 1237, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
E-mail: paivi.heikkinen _

Pentti Noras
Geological Survey of Finland
P.O. BOX 96, FI-02151 Espoo, Finland
E-mail: pentti.noras _

Reijo Salminen
Geological Survey of Finland
P.O. BOX 96, FI-02151 Espoo, Finland
E-mail: reijo.salminen _