Peat is organic soil which has stratified in its formation location from dead peat land plants through partial decomposition in wet and oxygen-free conditions.
There is a lot of peat land (approximately 9.3 million hectares) in Finland. Their most common uses are forestry and agriculture (appr. 5 million hectares), swamp conservation (appr. 1.13 million hectares), and peat production (appr. 0.08 million hectares). In addition to these uses, approximately one third (appr. 3 million hectares) of Finland’s mires is still in a natural state.
Nowadays, peat is mostly used as an energy source and as environmental and horticultural peat. Peat covers 7 per cent of energy supply and 20 per cent of district heat. In energy supply, peat is used to supplement imported energy, which forms 70 per cent of Finland’s energy supply.
GTK maps and surveys Finland’s peat resources while taking into consideration different uses and produces diverse information for the needs of land use planning and the business sector. GTK produces research information on the carbon cycle and peat accumulation.